Deep convective clouds (DCCs) play a crucial role in the general circulation, energy, and hydrological cycle of our climate and weather systems. How aerosol particles particularly anthropogenic aerosols may influence DCCs could be very complicated due to convoluted microphysical and dynamical processes associated with deep convection. The large uncertainty associated with aerosol-cloud interaction and aerosol-radiation interaction has been preventing us from achieving better weather and climate predictions. In this talk, I will present our recent understandings of how aerosols could change convection, extreme precipitation, and cloud anvil by serving as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei, which are gained from process-level studies with both advanced observations and high-resolution model simulations. I will also demonstrate how aerosol-radiation interaction can escalate an ordinary convective event to a catastrophic flooding event. Some significant modeling and observation challenges to tackle aerosol impacts on DCCs will be discussed.